In this podcast,
Mari-Etta gives a talk to athletes, trainers, and other health professionals at the Southeast USA Triathlon Expo.
The subject of the lecture is Long Course Triathlon Nutrition.

Southeast USAT (USA Triathlon) – Length: 28min

Podcast Outline:

Long Course Triathlon Nutrition

Nutrition = Performance

• Improper nutrition on race day is one of the top reasons for a DNF
• Wrong nutrition cannot only make you feel bad during a race, it could kill you!
• Proper Nutrition can improve performance as much as 14%
• Nothing new on race day, includes nutrition

• Muscle stores 30,000 kcals but no more than 10% of available fuel is ever contributed by protein.
• Need adequate calories to spare protein
• Most important role protein plays on race day is:
1.) albumin levels built prior to race day
2.) 6-20 g. protein immediately following race
3.) Regular meal protein intake within 2 hrs. of finish
• Small amounts of protein while racing (< 10g/hr.) may be beneficial for some but research is inconclusive

• Fat stores in the body are the primary preferred fuel for aerobic activity (intensity below lactate threshold)
• Fat is the most efficient way to store energy while minimizing the weight of the energy storage that has to be carried.
• Fat intake during a race is discouraged

Carbohydrate must be present to continue burning fat stores for fuel.

• Carbs are the primary preferred fuel source for anaerobic activity (above lactate threshold)
• Total body stores average 1800 kcals (max of 90 minutes worth)
• Carb loading may be beneficial done properly
Day 1 ; Carb intake g/lb = 2.27(*34 1g.) ; Exercise Limit In Minutes @ 70% VO2 Max = 90min
Day 2 ; Carb intake g/lb = 2.27 ; Exercise Limit In Minutes @ 70% VO2 Max = 40min
Day 3 ; Carb intake g/lb = 4.54(*68 1g.) ; Exercise Limit In Minutes @ 70% VO2 Max = 40min
Day 4 ; Carb intake g/lb = 4.54 Exercise Limit In Minutes @ 70% VO2 Max = 20min
Day 5 ; Carb intake g/lb = 4.54 Exercise Limit In Minutes @ 70% VO2 Max = 20min
Day 6 ; Carb intake g/lb = 4.54 Exercise Limit In Minutes @ 70% VO2 Max = Rest
Day 7 ; Completion
*Example of need for a 150lb athlete

• Must eat Carbs before, during, after race for optimal performance.
1.) Before:
Hours prior to Race = 4 ; Carb need in g/lb. = 1.81 (*273g.)
Hours prior to Race = 3 ; Carb need in g/lb. = 1.36
Hours prior to Race = 2 ; Carb need in g/lb. = 0.9
Hours prior to Race = 1 ; Carb need in g/lb. = 0.45 (*68g.)
*Example of need for a 150lb athlete
2.) During: at least 30-60 g/hour
3.) Post: 0.45g/lb. immediately following and then a regular meal within 2 hrs.

• Race day sources to meet Carb requirement:
1.) blend of sugars, limited fructose
2.) Limit fat, fiber, and protein in source (to keep calories minimal and improve utilization of carbs)

• Water is the most neglected nutrient.
• Dehydration begins @ 1% loss, and performance is impaired with 2% loss of fluids
• Over-hydration (Hyponatremia) is more dangerous than dehydration
• Type of drink matters:
1.) Volume: max absorption rate of 8 oz. in 15 min.
2.) Temperature: 40-50 degrees is ideal
3.) Osmolality: 14-18g. Carbs and 180 mg. Sodium/8 oz. (5-7%) *Avoid plain water intake while racing if possible; utilize sport drink or mix some sodium and sugar into water

• Fluid Requirements:
1.) Hydration begins prior to race day
2.) Prior to start of race:
0.5 oz./lb. 2 hrs. prior to race
8 oz. 20 minutes prior to race
3.) During Race: 4-8 oz./15 minutes
4.) Post Race: 24 oz./lb. lost during race

Vitamins and Minerals
• Mind sodium and calcium loss via sweat (sodium should be supplied during race up to 1000mg./hr w/ fluids but calcium replacement should mostly occur post race with food sources)
• Vit.C and Branch Chain Amino Acid Supplement for immune support post race.